From a medical perspective, the erection of the penis is mainly due to the regulation of blood vessels inside the penis. The arteries supply blood to the penis, while the veins are responsible for sending blood back to the heart. The erection of the penis is caused by significantly greater arterial congestion than venous reflux, causing the penis to become larger and harder like a balloon.
The vascular physiology of penile erection divides the process of penile erection into the following 8 items:
O phase: weak phase;
Phase 1: Latent phase or filling phase;
2 phases: expansion phase; three
Phase: Complete erection phase;
4 phases: hard erection phase;
5 phases: initial softening phase;
6 phases: slow softening phase;
7 phases: fast softening phase.
Each of the eight phases has corresponding changes in blood flow of arteries and veins, and abnormal vasomotion and contraction of arteries and veins at any stage can cause abnormal erectile function of the penis, which is closely related to the occurrence of impotence. So, the risk factors that lead to modern men's "sexual impotence" also revolve around this hemodynamic process.
In the past, it was believed that apart from age factors (aging), the vast majority of sexual impotence (over 90% of sexual impotence) is caused by psychological factors of patients, such as introverted personality, weak emotions, reticence, unpredictable emotions, strange temper, frequent depression, etc. Only a small portion is caused by physiological factors. However, with the continuous deepening of research on erectile dysfunction, it has been discovered that many patients who were previously unable to detect abnormalities still have "problems", mainly including:
① Diseases of the reproductive organs, such as penile curvature, penile induration, hypospadias, etc.
② Imbalance of endocrine hormone levels, such as low androgen levels, hyperprolactinemia, etc.
③ Systemic diseases, such as diabetes, renal failure, hypertension, heart disease, etc.
④ Surgery and trauma, such as radical prostatectomy, spinal injury, etc.
⑤ Drug abuse, such as antihypertensive drugs, psychiatric drugs, etc.
⑥ Poor lifestyle and dietary habits, such as smoking, excessive drinking, etc.
Regardless of whether the cause of sexual impotence is organic diseases or psychological factors, patients will eventually merge with varying degrees of psychological abnormalities, manifested as tension, anxiety, and depression, and some people's psychological abnormalities are very severe.