Renal failure is no less harmful than cancer, therefore, it can cause great harm to the human body. There are many causes of renal failure, which are aggravated by the combined effect of various pathogenic factors, such as diabetes nephropathy, drug-induced nephritis, hypertension, and so on. For patients, the only thing they can control is their daily diet to reduce the burden on the kidneys and delay the progression of kidney failure.
Due to the difficulty in detecting the early stages of chronic kidney failure, many patients are already in the middle to late stages when they experience symptoms of overall discomfort. At this stage, patients' renal metabolic function is severely damaged, and it is necessary to control their diet and reduce renal pressure in order to delay further deterioration of the condition.
Overall, the diet of patients with chronic kidney failure should pay attention to the following principles:
Firstly, a low protein diet.
Under normal renal function, after digestion and absorption, the protein in food is not only partially utilized by the body, but also partially decomposed and metabolized to produce nitrogen-containing substances such as urea nitrogen and creatinine, which are then excreted through the kidneys. In the case of renal failure, the filtration rate of the glomerulus decreases, and the ability of the kidneys to excrete metabolic waste decreases, resulting in the waste from protein breakdown and metabolism remaining in the blood, which is detrimental to health. A low protein diet can reduce the production and accumulation of protein metabolites, thereby reducing metabolic pressure on the kidneys and delaying the progression of renal failure. This is also the main means of non dialysis treatment for chronic renal insufficiency patients.
Secondly, a high calorie diet.
The human body needs energy to maintain normal operation, and our energy mostly comes from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Due to the need for a low protein diet in patients with chronic kidney failure, the body's daily essential energy needs to be obtained from other sources, avoiding protein. Therefore, patients with chronic kidney failure should eat high-calorie foods to ensure their daily essential energy.
Thirdly, a low phosphorus and high calcium diet.
As the disease progresses, patients with chronic kidney failure experience worsening renal fibrosis, worsening glomerular damage, and a decrease in phosphorus filtration rate, ultimately leading to an inability to expel phosphorus and an increase in blood phosphorus. Meanwhile, as renal fibrosis continues to worsen, the body's acid-base imbalance begins, and the ability of the kidneys to participate in the synthesis of vitamin D3 significantly decreases. Vitamin D3 can promote the absorption of calcium in the small intestine and promote the absorption of calcium in the renal tubules. If vitamin D3 is reduced, calcium absorption will decrease and blood calcium will also decrease. Chronic kidney failure patients generally experience high levels of phosphorus and low levels of calcium in the end, so it is necessary to control phosphorus intake, supplement calcium and vitamins more, and prevent the occurrence of renal bone disease. Foods rich in calcium include milk, green leafy vegetables, sesame paste, etc., while fish and lean meat have high phosphorus content. It is best to boil them in water before removing them and stir frying them.
Fourth, a low potassium and low sodium diet.
Patients with low urine output, low dialysis frequency, and high blood potassium often experience arrhythmia and sudden death due to high potassium. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly control potassium intake and eat less foods with high potassium content, such as pears and bananas. Patients with severe hypertension, edema, or high blood sodium should also control sodium intake.
Experts remind patients with kidney disease not only to control and regulate their diet, but also to control their daily water intake and ensure that the water intake does not exceed the amount of urine excreted, thereby reducing the burden of detoxification and purification on the kidneys and allowing them to fully recuperate.