Generally, about 80% to 85% of couples become pregnant in the first year of marriage, and about 10% to 15% of couples become pregnant in the second year. If they become infertile for more than three years, they should be vigilant. The vast majority of infertile patients come to see a doctor because they have been married for many years and are infertile, without any other discomfort. They only discover abnormalities during relevant physical and laboratory examinations.
Male infertility, defined by the World Health Organization as one year, refers to a non contraceptive life history of at least 12 months without causing a woman to conceive. Primary male infertility refers to a condition in which a man never conceives a woman. Secondary male infertility refers to a man who has previously conceived a woman. Generally speaking, male secondary infertility has a greater chance of restoring fertility than primary infertility.
At present, infertility has become a common disease. The normal value of sperm has dropped from over 60 million per milliliter to over 20 million per milliliter, which is considered normal.
The etiology of male infertility is complex
After infection of male reproductive organs with pathogenic bacteria, the presence of inflammation can affect the normal secretion of the gonads and decline in spermatogenic function, and lead to changes in the morphology, vitality, and survival period of sperm, leading to loss of fertilization ability and infertility. The vast majority of patients will experience symptoms such as acute orchitis, epididymitis, prostatitis, urethritis, and structural abnormalities of the reproductive organs. In severe cases, it can cause stenosis or even obstruction of the spermatic duct and epididymis, which can prevent sperm from smoothly passing through and entering the female body to combine with the egg.
"Varicocele refers to the expansion of the racemose venous plexus of the spermatic cord, which can impede blood flow to the testis, increase temperature, and cause metabolic disorders. In addition, harmful substances cannot be discharged in a timely manner, causing testicular spermatogenesis disorders, causing oligospermia, sperm abnormalities, and decreased vitality, leading to infertility.".
Abnormal immune function means that men develop antisperm autoimmunity. The semen of the human body contains a variety of antigens. If you suffer from urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, etc., and the blood-testis barrier is damaged, an immune reaction will occur and anti sperm antibodies will be produced. Anti sperm antibodies can inactivate sperm, causing oligospermia and azoospermia, and preventing sperm and egg binding.