The emergence of pelvic inflammatory disease causes special distress for many patients. After illness, active treatment should be taken, and the factors causing the disease should be clearly identified. Disease prevention work should be done well in daily life.
Causes of pelvic inflammatory disease
1. Age: According to data, the high incidence age of pelvic inflammatory disease is 15-25 years old. Young women are prone to pelvic inflammatory diseases, which may be related to frequent sexual activity, cervical columnar epithelial ectopia, and poor mechanical defense function of cervical mucus.
2. Sexual activity: Pelvic inflammatory diseases often occur in sexually active women, especially those who have young initial sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, frequent sexual intercourse, and sexual partners with sexually transmitted diseases.
3. Lower genital tract infection: lower genital tract infection is closely related to gonorrhoeal Neisseria cervicitis, chlamydial cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory diseases.
4. Infection after intrauterine surgery: curettage, tubal patency, hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopic examination, etc. The surgery causes damage, bleeding, necrosis of the reproductive tract mucosa, and an increase in endogenous pathogens in the lower reproductive tract.
5. Poor sexual hygiene: Physiological intercourse, use of unclean menstrual pads, etc. can invade pathogens and cause inflammation. In addition, low-income groups do not pay attention to sexual health care, and vaginal cleaners have a high incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease.
6. Inflammation in nearby organs directly spreads: appendicitis, peritonitis, etc. spread to the pelvis, and the pathogen is mainly Escherichia coli.
7. Recurrent acute attack of pelvic inflammatory disease: Extensive pelvic adhesions, fallopian tube damage, and decreased fallopian tube defense caused by pelvic inflammatory disease can easily lead to reinfection, leading to acute attack.
Infection pathway of pelvic inflammatory disease
1. Ascending and spreading along the reproductive tract mucosa: After pathogens invade the external genitalia and vagina, or pathogens in the vagina spread along the cervical mucosa, endometrium, and fallopian tube mucosa to the ovaries and abdominal cavity, it is the main infection pathway for non pregnancy and non postpartum pelvic inflammatory diseases. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, staphylococcus, etc., often spread along the way.
2. Lymphatic system spread: Pathogens invade pelvic connective tissue and other parts of the internal genitalia through lymphatic vessels in the external genitalia, vagina, cervix, and uterine trauma. It is the main route of infection after placing intrauterine devices in postpartum and abortion infections. Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and anaerobic bacteria often spread along the way.