AIDS, also known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is an infectious disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which is mainly transmitted through sexual behavior, blood contact or mother child contact. After HIV infection, human immune function is inhibited, which is easy to cause virus infection and tumor. After the human body is infected with HIV, it will cause damage to T lymphocytes, cause persistent immune deficiency, opportunistic infection and rare malignant tumors in multiple organs, and finally die.
How AIDS came into being
Two glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, are embedded in the lipoproteins membrane of the outer layer of HIV body. Therefore, HIV can choose to invade CD4+lymphocytes after reaching the blood through the damaged area of skin mucosa and other methods such as blood.
After HIV invades CD4+lymphocytes, under the action of viral reverse transcriptase, it synthesizes DNA and integrates it into the chromosome of the host cell. The integrated viral DNA can replicate in the cell, form a complete viral body, and release it out of the cell. The cell dies, infects new cells, and can also be in a latent infection state, and enter the offspring cells with the cell division.
At the initial stage of infection, HIV replicates in large numbers, resulting in viremia, and the expression of capsid antigen p24 can occur, which is characterized by acute HIV infection. Because of the massive replication of HIV in cells, CD4+lymphocytes are damaged and killed, and CD4+T cells are significantly reduced. However, under the immune function of the body, CD8+CTL is activated, killing HIV-infected cells and producing anti-HIV antibodies. Viremia is quickly cleared, and the number of CD4+lymphocytes is restored.
There are several ways of transmission of AIDS
AIDS patients' blood, semen, vaginal secretions, tears, urine, milk, cerebrospinal fluid, AIDS patients and AIDS carriers are infectious, mainly through sexual contact, followed by blood transmission, such as drug users, HIV infected blood and blood
1. Sexual transmission: AIDS virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Genital diseases (such as syphilis, gonorrhea, condyloma acuminatum) or ulcers may increase the risk of infection. HIV infected semen or vaginal secretions contain a large number of viruses, which can be transmitted through anal and vaginal sexual intercourse. The probability of oral sex transmission is relatively small. HIV may be transmitted through blood or semen unless a healthy partner has a cut or broken mouth.